(a very short primer)

Introduction | Temperature | Neatness | Developing Plus-X | Developing Tri-X (TX and TXP)| Developing T-MAX | Developing Arista ISO 400

Introduction

Developing black and white film involves developing the images latent on the film and rinsing away the light-sensitive silver that was not exposed (so that when the film is exposed to light after processing it, it won't continue to change)--with washes in between and at the end.

Before you develop your film, make sure that all chemicals are mixed. In this class, we will use:

Temperature

All chemicals should be at 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius). Why? Some chemicals do not respond lower than 65 degrees and some respond much too quickly under hotter temperatures. When the developer is too warm, the film develops quickly, but not all values develop fully.

Water comes out of the faucet in Tucson summers considerably hotter than 68 degrees, so you will need ICE to create baths to put beakers of chemicals in to cool them off. Generally, if tap water is much warmer than 68 degrees, try to get the developer at 68, and each succeeding chemical 2-3 degrees warmer, so that when you get to the water wash (which is water from the tap), you won't have a huge jump in temperature. Excessive temperature changes between chemicals can cause increased graininess in the film.

Since developer and fixer are generally mixed at much higher temperatures, chemicals should be mixed ahead of time--not to mention that mixing is time consuming.

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Neatness

You have probably noticed that after each chemical that does something follows a neutralizer or a wash: Stop Bath follows Developer; Hypoclear follows Fixer; a long wash follows these four steps.

CONTAMINATION is a BIG ISSUE in photography. If one chemical goes in the wrong container, the whole container is spoiled. If you try to use the contaminated chemical, your film will be spoiled. For instance, if fixer goes in the developer, silver ions will be removed from the film before the light exposed ions have been developed. If stop bath gets in the developer, the developer won't work.

NEATNESS and ORGANIZATION are critical in photography. Lay out your chemicals in a line. Think ahead: will you need a funnel? Has the funnel been cleaned after the last step? Do you have a watch or timer ready? Wipe up all spills and rinse the area with water. Rinse your hands and dry them off when you get chemicals on them. A residue of fixer on your fingers transferred to a roll of film you are loading will leave a tracery of fingerprints on the film. Make sure that your hands are CLEAN and DRY before handling film. Splashes of developer on your clothes will become brown stains that are all but impossible to remove. Use an apron or wear old clothes. Rinse tanks, trays, and other equipment, as well as counters after use.

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Film developing charts

   
for Kodak Plus-X (ISO 125)
   

D-76 Developer at 68°F

OR

HC-110 (dilution B, mixed 1:31/ developer:water)

51/2 minutes

 

5 minutes

Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter

Save (pour back in D-76 bottle and mark the no. of rolls in your tank on the bottle)

D-76: 65°F: 6 1/2 mins; 70°F: 5 mins; 75°F: 3 3/4 mins

HC110: 75°F: 3 1/2 minutes

Stop Bath 20 seconds   Save (pour back in the Stop Bath bottle)  
Fixer *2-4 minutes Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter Save (pour back in the Fixer bottle)  
Hypo-clear 30 seconds   Save (pour back in the Hypo-clear bottle)  
Wash 5 minutes Empty tank every minute or so to discard chemicals that have collected at the bottom of the tank    
Photo-Flo 30 seconds Do NOT agitate Save (pour back in the Photo-Flo bottle)  

Once film is in the developing tank and the lid is tightly on, the lights in the room can be turned on. For steps in Maroon, the lid to the developing tank must be firmly on or the film will be ruined. Once the steps in Green are reached, the film is no longer sensitive to light and the lid to the tank can be removed (but doesn't have to be).

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for Kodak Tri-X or TX (ISO 400)
   

D-76 Developer at 68°F

OR

HC-110 at 68°F (dilution B: mixed 1:31/ developer: water)

8 minutes

 

 

7 1/2 minutes

Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter

Save (pour back in D-76 bottle and mark the no. of rolls in your tank on the bottle)

D-76: 65°F: 9 mins; 70°F: 6 1/2 mins; 75°F: 5 1/2 mins

HC110: 75°F: 5 1/2 minutes

Stop Bath 20 seconds   Save (pour back in the Stop Bath bottle)  
Fixer *2-4 minutes Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter Save (pour back in the Fixer bottle)  
Hypo-clear 30 seconds   Save (pour back in the Hypo-clear bottle)  
Wash 5 minutes Empty tank every minute or so to discard chemicals that have collected at the bottom of the tank    
Photo-Flo 30 seconds Do NOT agitate Save (pour back in the Photo-Flo bottle)  

Once film is in the developing tank and the lid is tightly on, the lights in the room can be turned on. For steps in Maroon, the lid to the developing tank must be firmly on or the film will be ruined. Once the steps in Green are reached, the film is no longer sensitive to light and the lid to the tank can be removed (but doesn't have to be).

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for Kodak T-MAX (ISO 400)
   

D-76 Developer at 68°F

OR

HC-110 at 68°F (dilution B: mixed 1:31/ developer: water)

8 minutes

 

 

 

6 minutes

Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter

D-76: Save (pour back in D-76 bottle and mark the no. of rolls in your tank on the bottle)

HC110: Discard

D-76: 65°F: 9 mins; 70°F: 6 1/2 mins; 75°F: 5 1/2 mins

HC110: 75°F: 4 1/2 mins.

Stop Bath 20 seconds   Save (pour back in the Stop Bath bottle)  
Fixer *2-4 minutes Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter Save (pour back in the Fixer bottle)  
Hypo-clear 30 seconds   Save (pour back in the Hypo-clear bottle)  
Wash 5 minutes Empty tank every minute or so to discard chemicals that have collected at the bottom of the tank    
Photo-Flo 30 seconds Do NOT agitate Save (pour back in the Photo-Flo bottle)  

Once film is in the developing tank and the lid is tightly on, the lights in the room can be turned on. For steps in Maroon, the lid to the developing tank must be firmly on or the film will be ruined. Once the steps in Green are reached, the film is no longer sensitive to light and the lid to the tank can be removed (but doesn't have to be).

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for Kodak Tri-X Professional/ TXP (ISO 320)
   

HC-110 at 68°F (dilution B: mixed 1:31/ developer: water)

8 minutes

 

 

 

5 1/2 minutes

Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter

D-76: Save (pour back in D-76 bottle and mark the no. of rolls in your tank on the bottle)

HC110: Discard

D-76: 65°F: 9 mins; 70°F: 6 1/2 mins; 75°F: 5 1/2 mins

HC110: 75°F: 3.7 mins.

Stop Bath 20 seconds   Save (pour back in the Stop Bath bottle)  
Fixer *2-4 minutes Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter Save (pour back in the Fixer bottle)  
Hypo-clear 30 seconds   Save (pour back in the Hypo-clear bottle)  
Wash 5 minutes Empty tank every minute or so to discard chemicals that have collected at the bottom of the tank    
Photo-Flo 30 seconds Do NOT agitate Save (pour back in the Photo-Flo bottle)  

Once film is in the developing tank and the lid is tightly on, the lights in the room can be turned on. For steps in Maroon, the lid to the developing tank must be firmly on or the film will be ruined. Once the steps in Green are reached, the film is no longer sensitive to light and the lid to the tank can be removed (but doesn't have to be).

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for Arista (ISO 400);

this is the bulk film we are using at Davis

   

D-76 Developer at 68°F

OR

HC-110 at 68°F (dilution B: mixed 1:31/ developer: water)

7.5 minutes

 

 

5 minutes

Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter

D-76: Save (pour back in D-76 bottle and mark the no. of rolls in your tank on the bottle)

 

HC110: discard

 

Stop Bath 20 seconds   Save (pour back in the Stop Bath bottle)  
Fixer *2-4 minutes Agitate first 30 seconds; 5 seconds every 30 seconds thereafter Save (pour back in the Fixer bottle)  
Hypo-clear 30 seconds   Save (pour back in the Hypo-clear bottle)  
Wash 5 minutes Empty tank every minute or so to discard chemicals that have collected at the bottom of the tank    
Photo-Flo 30 seconds Do NOT agitate Save (pour back in the Photo-Flo bottle)  

Once film is in the developing tank and the lid is tightly on, the lights in the room can be turned on. For steps in Maroon, the lid to the developing tank must be firmly on or the film will be ruined. Once the steps in Green are reached, the film is no longer sensitive to light and the lid to the tank can be removed (but doesn't have to be).

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* Before using fixer, do a Fixer-clear Test. Put a piece of test film (from the tongue of the film) in the fixer and watch how long it takes to clear. Double this time when using the fixer, but don't go less than 2 minutes, unless using Rapid-fixer. (For example, if the film took 1 1/2 minutes to clear, fix the film for 3 minutes). Rapid-fixer works much more quickly than regular fixer (check information that comes with Rapid-fixer for times).

For other films or developers, check information that comes with the film (sometimes found printed on the inside of the cardboard box the film comes in).

Hang film to dry in a dust free place, using clothes pins on top and bottom. Allow to dry completely (at least an hour). When fully dry, cut in strips (usually 5 frames to a strip) and put in negative holders. Handle along the edges and with care!


Page location: http://www.arts.arizona.edu/are476/files/devF.htm

Page last updated: 23 October, 2001 (times added for HC-110 for all film types & times added for Arista film)